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اثر نیکلاس کار از انتشارات مازیار - مترجم: امیر سپهرام-ادبیات آمریکا

این کتاب ترجمه‌ای است از اثر زیر:
The Shallows, What the Internet is doing to our brains, 2012, by Nicholas Carr

بخش‌هایی خلاصه شده از متن کم‌عمق‌ها:

... در مغز کتاب‌خوانان ناحیه‌هایی اختصاصی برای رمزگشایی سریع متن ایجاد می‌شود. این نواحی «چنان سیم‌بندی شده‌اند که نماینده اطلاعات بصری، آواشناختی و دستور زبانی مهم باشند و بتوانند این اطلاعات را با سرعت برق‌آسایی بازیابی کنند.» برای مثال در قشر بینایی مغز «کلاژی واقعی» از تشکل‌های نورونی‌ای تشکیل می‌شود که وظیفه‌‌شان این است که در کسری از میلی‌ثانیه «تصویر بصری حروف، الگوی حروف و کلمات» را شناسایی کنند. مغز، با زبردست‌تر شدن در رمزگشایی متن و تبدیل آن از یک فعالیت حل مساله طاقت‌فرسا به فرآیندی که در اساس خودکار انجام می‌شود، می‌تواند منابع بیشتری را به تفسیر معنا اختصاص بدهد. در نتیجه، آن چه امروزه مطالعه عمیق (ژرف‌خوانی) می‌خوانیم ممکن می‌شود. ...

... جیکوب نیلسن، در سال ۲۰۰۶، دست به آزمایشی بر روی ردگیری چشم وب‌گردان زد. او از ۲۳۲ نفر خواست که دوربین کوچکی را سرشان کنند. کار این دوربین تعقیب حرکات چشم افراد در زمان مطالعه صفحات متن بود. وی دریافت که تقریبا هیچ یک از شرکت‌کنندگان متن برخط را به صورت سنتیِ خط‌به‌خط - مثل مطالعه یک صفحه از کتاب‌ - نمی‌خواندند. بیشترشان، انگار به سرعت سرشیر متن را می‌گرفتند و چشم‌شان با الگویی تا حدودی شبیه به حرف F روی صفحه حرکت می‌کرد. در آغاز، سر تا ته دو سه خط اول را از نظر می‌گذراندند، بعد چشم‌شان کمی پایین می‌آمد و چند خط دیگر را تقریبا تا نصف می‌خواندند. سپس می‌گذاشتند که چشم‌شان به سرعت به سمت چپ پایین صفحه بلغزد. ...

... در بخشی از یک مطالعه پنج‌ساله، یک تیم تحقیقاتی به بررسی سوابق روی کامپیوترها پرداختند که رفتار بازدیدکنندگان از دو وب‌سایت تحقیقاتی محبوب را مستند می‌کرد. هر دو سایت دسترسی به مقالات نشریات و کتاب‌های الکترونیکی را برای کاربران فراهم می‌کردند. محققان دریافتند که کاربران این وب‌سایت‌ها مشخصا رفتاری به صورت یک فعالیت سطحی‌خوانی از خود نشان می‌دهند؛ به طوری که از یک منبع به دیگری می‌جهند و به ندرت به منبعی که قبلا دیده‌ بودند، برمی‌گردند. اغلب، یک یا دو صفحه از مطلبی را می‌خوانند و بعد بیرون می‌پرند و سراغ منبع دیگری می‌روند. ...

... حال زمان پرسش حیاتی فرا رسیده است: دانش، در مورد تاثیر واقعی‌ای که استفاده از اینترنت بر شیوه کارکرد ذهن ما می‌گذارد، چه حرفی برای گفتن دارد؟ شکی نیست که این سوال موضوع پژوهش‌های بسیاری در سال‌های آینده خواهد بود. همین الان هم چیزهای زیادی می‌دانیم یا می‌توانیم حدس بزنیم. اما، اخبار نگران کننده‌تر از آنی است که گمان می‌کرده‌ام. ده‌ها پژوهش صورت‌گرفته توسط روان‌شناسان، عصب‌زیست‌شناسان، مدرسان و طراحان وب، همگی به نتیجه مشابهی رسیده‌اند: وقتی برخط می‌شویم، وارد محیطی شده‌ایم که تشویق به مطالعه سرسری، تفکر عجولانه و بی‌حواس و یادگیری سطحی می‌کند. هر چند، در گشت‌وگذار در اینترنت هم می‌توان ژرف‌خوانی کرد، همان طور که کتاب را هم می‌توان سطحی خواند، اما، ژرف‌اندیشی شیوه‌ای نیست که این فناوری کسی را به آن ترغیب کند. ...


خرید کتاب کم عمق ها
جستجوی کتاب کم عمق ها در گودریدز

معرفی کتاب کم عمق ها از نگاه کاربران
نویسنده با استناد به پژوهش های محققان حیطه ی روان شناسی و دیگر زمینه های علمی در پی اثبات این است که محشور شدن آدمیزاد با دنیای دیجیتال و اکیدن فضای اینترنت و دخالت مستمر آن در زندگی منجر به تغییر ساختارها درون مغز با تاثیر بر سلول های عصبی و نهایتن تغییر کارکرد مغز و شیوه ی تفکر می شود(چگونگی اش مفصل است و باید خواند) و نیز اینکه گریزی از تغییر فرهنگ ها هم به این واسطه نخواهد بود
نویسنده به طرح موضوع می پردازد اما خود نیز می داند که گریزی از این هجمه به تعبیری وجود نخواهد داشت. همانگونه که او کتابش را با ارجاع ها و مراجعه های بسیار به اینترنت نوشته است. تنها راه نجات و یا کند کردن همه ی این جریانها این است که دست از کتاب خواندن دست کم نباید کشید! هر چند خود کتاب هم در زمانه ای مانند اینترنت گویا عمل کرده است. نابودی انسان نقطه سر خط

Internet makes our brains very cheap maybe! but is really necessary for keeping alive! Every thing is very simple to dont think when internet is in our pocket...

مشاهده لینک اصلی
به همان روشی که سینما، ورزش و سایر ابداعات انسان‌ها در خدمت سودآوری درآمده است.
اینترنت نیز در خدمت سود است نه در خدمت بشریت.
گوگل هزار و یک قانون نوشته و نانوشته را برای تعامل سایت‌ها با اینترنت اعمال می‌کند.
در پس تمامی این قوانین تنها چیزی که مهم به‌نظر می‌رسد کسب سود بیشتر است.
نیکلاس کار، به‌خوبی در این کتاب به مشکلاتی که مغز ما در حین تعامل با اینترنت به آن دچار شده است اشاره می‌کند.
اما خبری از ارائه راه‌کار نیست. شاید هم واقعا راه‌کاری وجود نداشته باشد، چرا که همان‌طور که گفتم گوگل سلطان اینترنت است و تنها سود بیشتر را می‌بیند.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
Everyone should take some time to read this book. It is more than what the title sugests. And it opens your eyes. A lot! 😁

مشاهده لینک اصلی
Infuriating--he buries the small truths of his argument in exaggerations, the blurring of differences and projections of his own experiences onto everyone else.

Projections:

A perfect example is when he writes of his experience in the college library “Despite being surrounded by tens of thousands of books, I don’t remember feeling the anxiety that’s symptomatic of what we today call ‘information overload.’ There was something calming in the reticence of all those books, their willingness to wait years, decades even, for the right reader to come along.@ Personally, I have always felt overwhelmed in the presence of large libraries. In college, I used to go up and down the aisles pulling books and sometimes reading them standing in the aisle until the motion sensitive lights went out. I must note that Im not of the Internet generation--the first time I used a computer was to type a paper when I was a junior or senior in college. The Internet has increased, not created, the problem of information overload and anxiety.

“Today, people routinely talk about artificial memory as though it’s indistinguishable from biological memory.” I have yet to hear anyone I know blurring artificial and biological memory in this way anymore than people confuse their written to do list with their memory. I think people are generally smart enough to know that computer memory is simply a tool—an aid for memory, not our memory itself.

Exaggerations/blurrings:

“As soon as you inject a book with links and connect it to the Web—as soon as you ‘extend’ and ‘enhance’ it and make it ‘dynamic’—you change what it is and you change, as well, the experience of reading it. An e-book is no more a book than an online newspaper is a newspaper.”

Yes, an e-book IS a book. Carr also blurs here the difference between an e-book and a hypertext e-book—a very important distinction. I read digital books all of the time but I have always disliked hypertext books because I like getting caught up in my books, not distracted by added information. And, yes, I get just as caught up in my digital books as I do my printed books.

“It seems likely that removing the sense of closure from book writing will, in time, alter writers’ attitudes toward their work. The pressure to achieve perfection will diminish, along with the artistic rigor that the pressure imposed.”

Carr is writing here about a writer’s ability now to edit and alter his or her work perpetually and the effect it will have on the quality of their writing. Clearly he has never studied the endless variations Whitman wrote of his Leaves of Grass. The fact that a writer can now fix and improve their work, in his mind, means that they won’t bother trying to get it right the first time. How many literary writers does he know, anyway? He is also lumping all writers into one big category—isn’t there a difference between how a writer of popular self-help books approaches their writing from how a poet does? The fact that he then uses the analogy of letter writing to demonstrate what will happen to writing in general shows his tendency to blur important differences for the purposes of his argument.

Does the Internet change us neurologically, and not always for the better? I do think so. But it varies greatly from person to person. He neglects generational differences, for instance, which are very important—someone growing up online is going to process information differently from someone who came to the Internet, like I did, in adulthood. Our minds are plastic, yes, but never so much as when we are young. Anyone who has tried to learn a new language as an adult can confirm that.


There are very real issues at stake here but he does his own arguments a disservice with these exaggerations and failures to make distinctions. He uses Hawthorne’s narrative of being interrupted in his reverie by a train as an analogy for our inability to “contemplate.” He quotes Leo Marx’s Machine in the Garden: “The quiet clearing in the woods provides the solitary thinker with ‘a singular insulation from disturbance,’ a protected space for reflection. The clamorous arrival of the train…brings ‘the psychic dissonance associated with the onset of industrialism.’” So I leave you with one last thought—how many people in Hawthorne’s time had the luxury of time to “reflect”? Did we all live in a wonderland of contemplation before the arrival of the Internet? While we are hacking our way through the arguments for and against the Internet we have to remember that we all do not live the same lives or have the same experiences and our use of the Internet and its effect on us will likewise vary. The medium is not the message; it is only part of it. Our minds, I think, are plastic, not putty.

p.s. I may in future edit this review as I have time to reflect more on its arguments....

مشاهده لینک اصلی
The Nets interactivity gives us powerful new tools for finding information, expressing ourselves, and conversing with others. It also turns us into lab rats constantly pressing levers to get tiny pellets of social or intellectual nourishment.

The Shallows was recommended to me as “important and fascinating” by a retired schoolteacher, and based on her age and life experience, I can totally see what she got from this book. It is an interesting mix of neurobiology, the history of human technological achievement (and how these milestones rewire the way our brains work), and a scary-sounding warning about how we embrace new technologies at the risk of our own humanity. So far as the research into science and history goes, this was indeed “important and fascinating”, Im just not sure if I agree with Nicholas Carrs Doomsday conclusions; and as the latest research included is from 2009 (a lifetime ago in terms of the Internet Age; iPads were new and MySpace was still a thing), it may not be totally relevant anymore.

The basic gist: When we read a physical book, synapses fire in our brains, creating new and lasting neural connections, and it is the specific nature of slow, focussed, and solitary reading that causes this to happen. By contrast, the reading we do on the Internet (filled as it is with hyperlinks, ads, and other distractions) happens too quickly to be sent to long-term memory; there are no new connections made in the brain, and therefore, no real learning; no wisdom will be gained. Carr even says that reading a book on a Kindle-type device is too distracting to equate to real reading, and although I dont have such a device, is that really true? He makes the point that being able to highlight unfamiliar words for instant definition is too interruptive for focussed reading, but is that really more disruptive than putting the book down and reaching for a paper and ink dictionary? Carr also chastises those who mistakenly claim that we are freeing up room for creative thought by storing everything we used to learn by rote onto the Internet:

We dont constrain our mental powers when we store new long-term memories. We strengthen them. With each new expansion of our memory comes an enlargement of our intelligence. The Web provides a convenient and compelling supplement to personal memory, but when we start using the Web as a substitute for personal memory, bypassing the inner processes of consolidation, we risk emptying our minds of their riches.

So, Carrs conclusion is that turning, en masse as a society, from book reading to Internet reading is causing us to rewire our brains in a way thats different from what weve become accustomed to. What seems to be lost in this argument is that reading books themselves has rewired our brains in every new generation since Gutenberg, and I cant see the point in looking at one system of rewiring as “good” or the other as “bad”; technological leaps are inevitable and beyond such moralising. Either way, short of some apocalyptic event that knocks us out of the electronic age, this genie is out of the bottle and I wouldnt be using the Internet every day if I didnt find value in it. Interesting read.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
3.5 stars

A scary and informative book that delves into how the internet affects our brains, our attention spans, and the way we think. Carr argues that technology takes away from our ability to process information deeply and soundly; he states that distractions like the internet promote scattered, shallow thinking. To prove his point he cites research that shows how the brain responds to the internet: indeed, we obtain dopamine from the quick clicks and the many links online, similar to how drug addicts get their fix. Carr also allocates a decent amount of The Shallows to the idea of neuroplasticity - not only do we shape the technology we use, but the technology we use shapes us, which is clearly the case with the internet.

I enjoyed learning about a lot of the smaller details in this book too. Carr elaborates upon past, present, and future uses of technology to solidify his points, and at the end of the book he discusses how the internet hampers with compassion and empathy. He made sure to mention the positive aspects of the internet, bringing his book balance, and he deconstructed the Flynn effect, showing that future generations can still succumb to the damaging repercussions of technology addiction.

I wanted more solutions from The Shallows, though. Carr hammers in how the internet detracts from deep thinking, but by the end of the book I felt a distinct lack of answers or remedies. I plan on writing about my own strategies for overcoming my struggle with @internet addiction,@ but what about all the kids whose parents give them smartphones and iPads in elementary school? How do we reverse a society already so entrenched in the internet and its surface-level bounties? Carr states that he has hope for our world amidst its growing dependence on technology, yet I failed to see what inspired his positivity - The Shallows would have benefited from more future-oriented strategies.

Overall, highly recommended for those who want tangible proof that the internet affects our brains, as well as for those who can notice the internets prominence in their daily lives (Im looking at you, constant email-and-Facebook checkers). Carr approaches the issue from several angles, and the sheer depth of his research deserves much respect.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
This book was extremely interesting, lots of history, studies and observations and some personal honesty mixed in. I thought it fascinating. He has brought to my mind some interesting and disturbing reflections.

One primary drive of humans is to make life easier. We cant help but want to produce more with less effort, so this has resulted in inventions such as the tractor which plow in one day what it once took a month to accomplish by hand. We likewise seem to have a drive to create devices to make mental life easier. We no longer need to remember phone numbers, times and dates, for theyre in our phones. why needlessly fill our brain with mathematics when our calculator can do the work for us? Our computer faithful reminds us how to spell words and we no longer need look at maps and remember how to get around, because we have the GPS. Why memorize anything anymore for we can google it in a moment on our iphone. Its as if mentally weve thought walking to much effort, so weve made machines to walk for us. This seems fine and dandy, until we learn our legs have withered and have lost strength. Have you ever watched the movie Wall-E? Remember the people on the space ship, hovering around on full-time entertainment machines? It almost seems that this is where technology is leading us!

Now here is the problem, if kids had the choice, most would choose the cushy life; To be physically attractive and rich, to have parents that let them have their way and who spoil them with every toy, electronic and gadget. Yet this is a recipe for the making of a shallow, miserable and wretched individual with no character or integrity. But most of us would choose this as a kid if we could have. The easy feel good way has a strong pull. Fortunately we dont have that option as children and as weve grown up, weve learned that muscles must be strained to grow. Even though we may hate the fact, difficulty, struggle and hard work develops depth and character.

But Technology is offering our adult brains a choice, we can spoil it and let a computer do all the work for us or we can do things the hard way.

It is interesting how our tools become part of us, when we take a hammer, it is to our brain as if its an extension of the hand and it will be able to accomplish what our physical hand could not do, yet it has limitation. Just as binoculars help us see far away but limit our peripheral vision and blind to what is right in front of us. Likewise, our computers will help us to do a lot we could not do otherwise, but it will also have a negative limiting effect.

We program our computers only to find theyre programing us. The internet is not only addicting, but it is distraction machine; with links, new messages and ads everywhere, encouraging us to hop from one thing to another thing. Because we spend so much time on it, its wiring our brain to have a short attention span, it may be a big factor in the rise attention deficit disorders. As it becomes more apart of our lives, it becoming harder to focus, think deeply, read a book and harder to remember things.

Yet as the author acknowledges, he is addicted, and I must say I am too, we have grown dependent upon our external brain and could not imagine living without it. It is just to helpful. But as with the writer, all this does cause me to want to limit my time in front of a screen and to force myself to do more actual reading. Disciplining myself to think deeply and make memorization an activity that I partake in again. For I will either use it or loose it.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
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